LNG Shipping Knowledge 3rd Edition

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Number of Pages:
Book Height:
304 mm
Book Width:
218 mm
2.25 kg
Published Date:
July 2020
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This publication details the underpinning knowledge required for ship’s officers serving on LNG carriers, as set out in SIGTTO’s ‘LNG Shipping Competency Standards’. It has been updated to reflect the substantial technical and operational advances on LNG carriers since publication of the 2nd edition.

With the rapid growth of LNG shipping, the introduction of a system of internationally recognised and structured training programmes was necessary. In 2005, the Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators (SIGTTO) released the first version of its ‘LNG Shipping Competency Standards’ to provide guidance and suggested best practice for the industry. A second edition was published in 2008. This third edition was published in 2020 to incorporate developments within the LNG industry, including the latest updates to The International Code for Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (IGC Code).

At almost 500 pages, this publication covers all areas of LNG carriage and care by sea.


1 LNG Fundamental Knowledge and Understanding
1.1 Physics and Chemistry
1.2 Principles of Design
1.3 Regulations and Guidance
1.4 Principles of Tank Atmospheres
1.5 Properties of Materials
1.6 Hazards of LNG and Relevant Gases
1.7 Environmental Impact
1.8 Risk Assessment
1.9 Individual Responsibilities
1.10 Contingency Plans
1.11 Record Keeping
1.12 Planning

2 LNG Equipment
2.1 Cargo System – Tank Construction
2.2 Air and Inert Gas Driers
2.3 Inert Gas Generator
2.4 Nitrogen Systems
2.5 LNG Vaporiser
2.6 High Duty Compressor(s)
2.7 Low Duty Compressor(s)
2.8 Gas Heaters
2.9 Forcing Vaporiser
2.10 Cargo Pumps
2.11 Spray Pumps
2.12 Cargo Tank Protection Devices
2.13 Cargo Line Protection Devices
2.14 Cargo Space Protection Devices
2.15 Cargo Liquid and Vapour Valves
2.16 Cargo Tank Protection System
2.17 Reliquefaction Plant (if fitted)
2.18 Gas Combustion Unit (Oxidiser)
2.19 Regasification Plant
2.20 Cargo Related Spaces

3 LNG Support Systems
3.1 Nitrogen Pressurisation and Purge
3.2 Cofferdam Heating System
3.3 Fixed Gas Detection
3.4 Portable Gas Detection Equipment
3.5 Emergency Shutdown System (ESDS)
3.6 Emergency Mooring Release
3.7 Water Curtain
3.8 Drenching System
3.9 Fixed Dry Powder Installations
3.10 Level Gauging Systems
3.11 Custody Transfer Measurement System (CTMS)
3.12 Certified Safe Electrical Equipment
3.13 High Voltage Systems
3.14 IAS System
3.15 Turbo Alternator Control Systems
3.16 Propulsion Types
3.17 Gas Combustion Systems

4 LNG Standard Operations
4.1 Cargo Tank Cleaning
4.2 Hold Space and Cargo Tank Drying
4.3 Nitrogen Purging of Containment System
4.4 Inerting of Cargo System
4.5 Ship and Shore Preparation and Manifold Connection
4.6 Gassing Up (Purging) of Cargo System
4.7 Cooldown of Cargo System
4.8 Loading
4.9 Loaded and Ballast Passage
4.10 Discharging
4.11 Warm-Up
4.12 Gas Freeing
4.13 Aeration
4.14 Ship to Ship (STS) Preparation and Manifold Connection
4.15 Ship to Ship Transfer of Cargo

5 LNG Non-Standard and Emergency Operations
5.1 Types of Non-Standard and Emergency Operations
5.2 Multiple Cargo Pump Failure in One Tank
5.3 Gas Freeing a Single Tank
5.4 Part Load and Discharge
5.5 Non-Availability of Key Equipment
5.6 Loss of Gas Handling Capability
5.7 Prolonged Loss of Power to Cargo and Ancillary Systems
5.8 Loss of Primary Containment
5.9 Ballast Tank Leakage into Containment Space
5.10 Nitrogen Supply Failure
5.11 Jettison of Cargo
5.12 Overfilling of a Cargo Tank
5.13 Loss of Cargo Pipeline Containment
5.14 Failure of Integrated Automation System
5.15 Uncontrolled Release of Cargo

6 LNG Commercial Considerations
6.1 Terms and Conditions in Use 446
6.2 Vetting and Inspection Processes
6.3 Ship/Shore Compatibility Assessment

Annex I – Reference Documents
Annex II – Definitions


Witherbys titles are developed using scripts developed by technical experts that are peer reviewed within work groups. Typically, they seek to improve understanding of the regulations, recommendations and guidelines issued by Industry.

Witherbys staff have significant expertise in the fields of navigation and hazardous cargoes as well as in the presentation of complex subjects in a graphic and easy to understand manner.

Number of Pages:
Binding Format:
Book Height:
304 mm
Book Width:
218 mm
2.25 kg

Witherby Publishing Group

Published Date:
July 2020