Crude Oil Tanker Basics - The Theory and Practice of Crude Oil Cargo Operations

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Number of Pages:
Book Height:
280 mm
Book Width:
165 mm
0.6 kg
Published Date:
October 2009
Current Stock:
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This book covers the basics of crude oil tanker operations, including cargo transfer, venting, purging, pump theory, and inert gas and crude oil washing systems.

The topics covered in this book range from the basics of crude oil chemistry to the economics of the oil market. Fundamentals of cargo operations, such as calculating cargo quantity, are explained in both theory and practice. This ensures that the basics of operating crude oil tankers and their related activities are not neglected; readers will be equipped with the required knowledge to perform operations fully and correctly.

The book is supported by photographs taken on board a new build VLCC.

1 Crude Oil Extraction

2 Crude Oil Chemistry
2.1 Classification of Crude Oil
2.2 Properties of Crude Oil

3 Measurement of Cargo Quantity
3.1 Level Measurement (Tank Gauging)
3.2 Temperature Measurement
3.3 Detecting Water

4 Calculating Cargo Quantity
4.1 Calculating the Cargo Requirement
4.2 Calculating the Weight of Cargo
4.3 Calculating the Volume of Cargo
4.4 Cargo Distribution
4.5 Load Port Calculations
4.6 Calculation of Cargo Loaded and Discharged
4.7 Calculating Residual Quantities
4.8 Comparing Onboard Quantities with Bill of Lading (B/L) Figures

5 Loading Rates and Venting
5.1 Maximum Loading Rate
5.2 Minimum Loading Rate
5.3 Topping off Loading Rate
5.4 Cargo Tank Vetting During Loading

6 Preparing for Cargo Transfer
6.1 Planning
6.2 Testing and Checking Equipment

7 The Loading Operation
7.1 Initial Loading Phase
7.2 Full Rate Phase
7.3 Topping off and changing Over Tanks
7.4 Completing Phase

8 Pumping and Pump Theory
8.1 Pressure and Head
8.2 Pump Suction Conditions
8.3 Pump Discharge Conditions
8.4 Construction and Principles of Operation of Centrifugal Pumps
8.5 Pump Suction Conditions
8.6 Discharge Conditions
8.7 Water Hammer
8.8 Stripping Systems

9 Cargo Discharge Operations
9.1 Commencement of Discharge
9.2 Discharging at Full Rate
9.3 Stripping
9.4 Stripping Line Contents

10 Inert Gas
10.1 Chemistry of Inert Flue Gas
10.2 Production and Processing of Inert Flue Gas
10.3 Preparing the IG System
10.4 Primary Inerting
10.5 Purging
10.6 Monitoring Gas Concentrations
10.7 Operation of the IG System during Cargo Discharge
10.8 Cold Weather Precautions when Using the IG System

11 Crude Oil Washing (COW)
11.1 The Chemistry of COW
11.2 Hazards of COW
11.3 COW Methodology
11.4 Programming COW Machines

12 Ballasting, Deballasting and Crude Oil Content Discharge Control
12.1 Ballast Tank Arrangements
12.2 Piping and Pumps
12.3 Venting Arrangement
12.4 Oil Discharge Monitoring and Control Equipment (ODME)
12.5 Ballasting and Deballasting Segregated Ballast Tanks (SBTs)
12.6 Ballasting and Deballasting Cargo Tanks
12.7 Decanting
12.8 Ballast Exchange

13 Preparing for Maintenance
13.1 Tank Cleaning / Washing
13.2 Line Washing
13.3 Gas Freeing
13.4 Gas Detection and Measurement
13.5 Operations Requiring Tank Cleaning and Line Washing

14 Contingencies and Emergencies
14.1 Cargo Equipment or Systems Failure
14.2 Problems during Pumping
14.3 Inert Gas System Failure
14.4 Cargo or Ballast Leakage
14.5 Marine Pollution
14.6 Oil Outflow due to Hull Damage

15 Crude Oil Trade, Voyage Fixing and Economics
15.1 Crude Oil Trading
15.2 Chartering
15.3 Charter Types
15.4 Voyage Economics
15.5 Crude Oil Trade

Number of Pages:
Binding Format:
Book Height:
280 mm
Book Width:
165 mm
0.6 kg

Paul Armitage

Published Date:
October 2009