Rocks and Hard Places: How to Avoid Them
This publication explains the actions personnel can take to avoid shipping incidents. It details the ship’s navigational system and procedures for voyage planning, the need for effective bridge team management and both virtual and physical watchkeeping. All of these factors are designed to reduce the risk of incidents.
This guide is designed to bring to the attention of Masters and officers the key factors that contribute to groundings and fixed floating object damage. It tests readers’ understanding of navigational equipment and onboard training, encouraging crew to test one another during voyage preparation. The book aims to promote an understanding of how risks can be minimised through following good practice. Most chapters are supported by case studies that highlight poor practice and ask readers to reflect on alternative options.
Ship groundings and fixed and floating object (FFO) damage – the term used when a ship damages property other than another ship – are among the highest profile and most costly of maritime accidents. The cost in both personal and financial terms has increased in recent years, but human error remains the most common factor. Groundings and FFO incidents are rarely caused by a single factor. They are usually explained by a combination of factors that, together, cause an incident.
A ship’s navigational system and procedures for voyage planning, bridge team management and watchkeeping are designed to reduce the risk of incidents. All are interdependent, and it is when these systems and procedures start to break down that incidents occur.
Every voyage, and the plans made in support of the voyage, is part of one complex, sometimes confusing, and always changing system. Each and every component of the voyage is reliant on all of the other components to ensure that a ship, the crew, its cargo and the environment are kept safe.
Systems do not break down by themselves and procedures do not bypass themselves; it is the incorrect actions or omissions of the people using the system and/or procedures that cause them to break down. If you are part of the bridge team, it is your responsibility to ensure that the systems are properly used and implemented. Remember, as a member of the bridge team it is your responsibility to ensure that your ship is kept safe during a voyage.
This guide is not intended as a textbook on voyage planning and the avoidance of groundings or FFO incidents. It is designed to bring to the attention of ships’ officers the key factors that we at North, based on many years of extensive experience in dealing with such incidents, believe are the key contributory factors in groundings and FFO incidents.
The guide includes suggestions on avoiding these contributory factors and aims to promote an understanding of how the risks can be minimised through following good practice.
It is much less costly to learn from the mistakes of others than to learn from your own mistakes.
Chapter 1 It is Your Responsibility
1.2 Fixed and Floating Objects
Chapter 2 Voyage Planning
2.1 IMO Guidelines
2.2 Preparing the Voyage Plan
Chapter 3 Monitoring of the Voyage Plan
3.1 Position Monitoring
3.2 Looking Ahead and Real Time Monitoring
3.3 Passing ‘The Con’
Chapter 4 Departure from the Voyage Plan
Chapter 5 Aids to Navigation
5.1 Testing Each Other’s Knowledge
Chapter 6 Navigating with A Pilot on Board
6.1 IMO Recommendations
6.2 Pre-arrival Information
6.3 Berth to Berth Plan
6.4 Master–Pilot Exchange (MPX)
6.5 Monitoring a Vessel During Pilotage
6.6 Monitoring the Pilot
6.7 Maintaining the Master’s Authority
6.8 On Board Training and Procedures
Chapter 7 The Bridge Team
7.1 Teamwork and Communication
7.2 Understanding Cultural Issues
8.1 Information Overload
8.4 Poor Communication
Chapter 9 Fatigue
Chapter 10 Speed and Angle of Approach
10.2 Angle of Approach
Chapter 11 Tugs
11.1 Planning Tug Operations
Chapter 12 Weather Conditions
12.2 Restricted Visibility
12.3 Sea State
Chapter 13 Machinery Problems
North P&I Club
Over the years our service offering and our global office network has grown but our business has remained grounded where it all began; the North East of England.
- Number of Pages:
- Binding Format:
- Book Height:
- 210 mm
- Book Width:
- 147 mm
- 0.1 kg
North of England P&I Association