Guidelines for the Alleviation of Excessive Surge Pressures on ESD for Liquefied Gas Transfer Systems

(No reviews yet)
Number of Pages:
Book Height:
297 mm
Book Width:
210 mm
0.6 kg
Current Stock:
Adding to cart… The item has been added

This publication explains the concept of surge pressure and provides practical advice on its associated hazards and risk management. It outlines the principal design and operational recommendations for cargo transfer systems and will benefit managers, designers and operators of liquefied gas carriers.

This publication provides advice at every level of liquefied gas carrier operation. It encourages a mutual understanding of safe transfer procedures between designers, engineers and operators of both liquefied gas carriers and terminal loading and unloading systems. Readers are also made aware of the factors contributing to surge pressure hazards and the benefits of a linked ship/shore ESD system in mitigating these.

1. Introduction and Scope

2. Surge

2.1 What is Surge?

2.2 Liquefied Gas Cargo Transfer Systems

2.3 Secondary Surges

2.4 Line Pack Effect

3. Surge Hazards and Risk Management

3.1 Hazards and Risk Management

3.2 Risk Assessment

3.3 Bowtie

3.4 Bowtie Hazards

3.5 Causal Factors

3.6 Barriers

3.7 Surge Bowtie

4. Recommendations and Guidelines

4.1 Principal Design Recommendations

4.2 Principal Operational Recommendations


Surge Technical Background

Surge Pressures in a Typical Loading System

Surge Pressures in a Typical Unloading System


Design Approach to Alleviate Surge Pressures

Surge Pressure Relief


The Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators (SIGTTO) is an international body established for the exchange of technical information and experience, between members of the industry, to enhance the safety and operational reliability of gas tankers and terminals.

Number of Pages:
Binding Format:
Book Height:
297 mm
Book Width:
210 mm
0.6 kg