This publication provides ships’ officers, tanker terminal personnel and selected management staff ashore an understanding of the principles involved in the safe loading, transportation and discharging of liquefied gases. The revised edition includes both theoretical and practical aspects of ship operations, with the objectives of ensuring efficient tanker operations and the safety and health of personnel throughout all stages of the voyage and while alongside in the terminal.
This title offers comprehensive detail on the bulk transport at sea of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), liquefied natural gas (LNG) and chemical gases, as well as aspects of various cargo handling systems. It includes a chapter on cargo calculations, ensuring ships’ crew are aware of correct loading quantities prior to cargo operations.
This book provides an assessment of gases, including their hazards and properties, before considering all stages of LPG and LNG operations. A detailed overview of STS operations is also included.
Processes such as reliquefaction and gassing-up are illustrated by 3D models, a beneficial visual aid to those in preparation and operation of modern gas carrying ships, or in operation of a related shore facility. The guidance concludes with a consideration of general emergency procedures, including the principal hazards on gas carriers.
These training notes are designed to give ships’ officers, tanker terminal personnel and selected management staff ashore an understanding of the principles involved in the safe loading, transportation and discharging of liquefied gases.
Guidance and best practice on the bulk transport at sea of liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs), liquefied natural gas (LNG) and chemical gases are considered in detail.
The notes begin with an assessment of gases, including their hazards and properties. Gas carrier characteristics and design are then discussed, with reference to the relevant Conventions, Codes, and regulations, including the International Code of the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (IGC Code). The notes then describe the purpose and general operation of the various cargo handling systems found on gas carriers (including pipes, valves, cargo pumps, reliquefaction plants, compressors, inert gas plants and other auxiliary systems).
All stages of LPG and LNG operations are explored in great detail, with a focus on important safety topics, as well as a walk through different cargo stages during a tanker voyage (drying, inerting, gassing-up, cooldown, loading and discharge). These notes also provide an overview of STS operations for gas carriers, the basics of liquefied gas cargo calculations, terminal operations, and the use of equipment for tank atmosphere evaluation and safe entry into enclosed spaces. The guidance concludes with consideration of general emergency procedures, including the principal hazards on gas carriers.
Gas carriers are one of the safest ship types in the maritime community and this enviable record is made possible by continued familiarity with best practice and procedure by all involved. The notes include both theoretical and practical aspects of ship operations, with the objectives of ensuring efficient tanker operations and the safety and health of personnel throughout all stages of the voyage and while alongside in the terminal.
1. The Gases and Their Properties
1.2 Chemical Properties of the Gases
1.3 Physical Properties of the Gases
1.4 Gases – Properties and Rules
1.5 States of Matter
1.6 What are the Gases Carried on Liquefied Gas Carriers Used For?
2.1 Health Hazards
2.2 Flammability and Explosion
2.3 O2 Concentration and Inerting
2.4 Sources of Ignition
3.1 Principles of Gas Carrier Design and Construction and the IGC Code
3.2 Cargo Containment Systems
3.3 Materials of Construction
3.4 Hold Spaces
3.5 Liquefied Gas Carriers – Ship Types
3.6 General Gas Carrier
3.7 Layout Surveys and Certification
4.1 The IGC Code
4.2 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)
4.3 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL)
4.4 International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW)
4.5 Other Conventions and Codes
4.6 Inter-Industry Organisations
4.7 Classification Societies
4.8 Ship Inspection
5.1 Cargo Piping, Valves and Auxiliary Systems
5.2 Pressure Relief Valves (PRVs)
5.3 Cargo Pumps
5.4 LPG Reliquefaction
5.5 LNG Reliquefaction
5.6 Inert Gas Systems
5.7 Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas
5.9 Custody Transfer Measurement System (CTMS)
6.6 Loaded Passage
6.8 Ballast Passage
6.9 Changing Grades/Gas
6.10 Freeing Aeration of Cargo Tanks
6.11 Important Points When Changing Liquefied Gas Cargoes
6.12 Tank Cleaning Table Liquefied Gas (Fully Refrigerated LPG)
6.13 Change of Cargo Table
6.14 Odourisation (Stenching)
6.15 Mixing Cargoes (Blending/Co-mingling)
7.1 Normal Trading Cycle of an LNGC
7.2 Operations Related to Auxiliary Systems
7.7 Loading Operation
7.8 Laden Voyage
7.9 Discharge Operation
7.10 Ballast Voyage
8.1 Pre-arrival Stage
8.2 Approach and Mooring Stage
8.3 Cargo Transfer Stage
8.4 Post-transfer Procedure
9.2 Weight or Mass
9.6 ASTM Tables
9.7 Total Weight of Liquid Cargo
9.8 Total Weight of Vapour Cargo
9.9 Discharging Calculations
9.10 Cargo Calculation Form
9.11 Vessel Experience Factors
10.1 The Ship/Shore Interface
10.4 General Precautions While the Ship is at Berth
10.5 Cargo Handling
10.6 Cargo Vapour Handling
10.7 Additional Procedures
11.1 Tank Atmosphere Evaluation
11.2 Fixed Gas Detection
11.3 Portable and Personal Gas Detection
11.4 Entry into Enclosed Spaces
11.5 Respiratory Protection Used on Liquefied Gas Carriers
12.1 The Principal Hazards
12.2 Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing
12.3 Emergency Procedures
12.4 Emergency Plans
Annex 1 – Bibliography
Annex 2 – Useful Formulae and Notes
Witherbys titles are developed using scripts developed by technical experts that are peer reviewed within work groups. Typically, they seek to improve understanding of the regulations, recommendations and guidelines issued by Industry.
Witherbys staff have significant expertise in the fields of navigation and hazardous cargoes as well as in the presentation of complex subjects in a graphic and easy to understand manner.
- Number of Pages:
- Book Height:
- 297 mm
- Book Width:
- 210 mm
- 2.2 kg
- Published Date:
- January 2022
- Publication Date:
- January 2022