Personal Injury Prevention: A Guide to Good Practice (Second Edition)

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BP101987
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Number of Pages:
86
Book Height:
210 mm
Book Width:
147 mm
Weight:
0.2 kg
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This guide highlights onboard operations that present a risk to personal safety and sets out recommended personal protective equipment (PPE) and best working practices. It looks at the roles and procedures required for effective onboard safety management and advises how to develop an onboard safety culture. The guide is illustrated with cartoons demonstrating good and bad practice.

The International Safety Management (ISM) Code requires all ships to implement a Safety Management System, to include procedures, plans, instructions and checklists for key shipboard operations. This guide complements the SMS and is designed to raise awareness of onboard hazards and promote onboard safety culture.

The book identifies the key safety practices that should be implemented on every ship, including shipboard safety management, work planning and use of personal protective equipment (PPE). It discusses a number of onboard operations, including electrical maintenance, handling shipboard chemicals, use of lifting equipment, hot work, enclosed space entry, mooring operations, cargo handling and galley work. It describes the potential hazards and sets out safeguards and best practices.

The book includes case studies relating to variety of personal injury claims. They examine the cause of each incident and the lessons to be learnt.

In many shipping companies, shipboard safety has improved greatly over the past few years. With the implementation of the International Safety Management (ISM) Code, safety awareness programmes, the routine use of safety equipment, safety training and generally the development of a safety culture have made ships safer places to live and work. However, far too many incidents, accidents, injuries and claims are still occurring.

ACCIDENTS AND THEIR CAUSES

Clearly, such accidents lead to considerable suffering on the part of the individuals involved – and their families. They also lead to insurance claims which are a drain on the already over stretched financial resources of ship owners.

The apparent cause of personal injuries is frequently attributed to ‘human error’. The true cause is often complex and involves many issues. It is the seafarers themselves, with guidance and support from the ship owner, safety advisers and legislation, who are best placed to investigate and analyse the causative factors which led to an accident. They can then implement corrective action in an effort to ensure that similar incidents do not happen again and generally assist in the reduction of personal injuries.

The word reduction is used since total elimination may not yet be a realistically viable target. But it is, nevertheless, what we should all strive for in the future.

It does not seem unreasonable to suggest that seafarers should take particular care for their own safety as well as that of their shipmates. Safety should be a priority consideration and tasks should only be attempted when all the safety implications have been fully considered and the appropriate action taken. Many accidents are the result of lapses in concentration or have seemingly minor causes. The consequences of such lapses can lead to accidents which vary in their severity, but the degree of severity is often only down to chance.

ISM CODE REQUIREMENTS

Under the International Safety Management (ISM) Code, all shipping companies are required to develop a safety and environmental policy as detailed in Section 1.4 of the Code – Functional requirements for a safety management system.

The Code, which is an International Maritime Organization (IMO) resolution, has been incorporated as Chapter IX of the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention and is mandatory for almost all commercial ships around the world.

Section 7 of the Code requires the Company to establish procedures, plans and instructions, including checklists as appropriate, for key shipboard operations concerning the safety of the ship. This sits alongside Section 8 which requires the Company to identify potential emergency shipboard operations and establish procedures to respond to them. This guide is not intended to fulfil those requirements in their entirety but provide a valuable complement to a ship owner’s own procedures. The manuals and procedures of each individual company Safety Management System must take precedence.

One of the listed objectives of the ISM Code is to:

‘Provide for safe practices in ship operation and a safe working environment’.

HOW TO USE THIS GUIDE

This guide details a range of safe practices which, if adopted on board ship, will help reduce the high number of accidents and injuries experienced by many seafarers. In essence, what must be developed is a safety culture. Safety and accident prevention is really a four stage process. It is necessary to:

  • Identify the problem
  • Provide all personnel with basic training and basic personal protective equipment
  • Develop a safety culture – where safety becomes a priority consideration
  • Develop accident, incident and near miss reporting systems.

BASIC SAFETY EQUIPMENT, TRAINING AND DEVELOPING THE SAFETY ETHOS

It is vital that all seafarers are provided with, and are trained in the proper use of, the correct safety equipment and personal protective equipment (PPE). This guide book attempts to identify that equipment and provide guidance on its use and the circumstances in which it should be used. Once the equipment has been provided, and seafarers know how it should be correctly used, the next step is to develop the ‘safety culture’. It is not enough to allow the management of safety to stop there – all involved must be motivated to put into practice what they have learned and to always use the correct PPE.

Developing the safety culture demands total commitment from the very top of the organisation, to drive it through the company managers, senior ship staff, officers and crew. This commitment must be a tangible one and safety and the prevention of personal injury must be elevated to become a priority factor in the operation of the company. It is vital to establish procedures, guidelines and advice to seafarers on practical means of avoiding personal injury.

The company role should be one of support and encouragement rather than one of developing more rules and regulations simply to comply with legislation. Encouragement, motivation and support of the sea staff by management will reap more benefits than increased regulation.

If they do not already do so, ship owners may wish to consider the appointment of a shore-based safety advisor who can visit ships and provide advice on safety topics. During such visits the safety advisor will be able to gain an impression of the safety awareness situation on board ship and the degree to which the safety culture has been developed. The opportunity may also be taken to provide safety training of sea staff within the context of the Safety Management System.

This guide is intended as an additional weapon in the fight against accidents – particularly personal injuries. It is not intended as an alternative to thorough training. The competency of seafarers to correctly use safety equipment and to be fully aware of onboard safety procedures is of paramount importance. With the common goal of reducing the cost of personal injury in both human and financial terms, everyone has a responsibility and a role to play.

This obviously includes you – the reader!

1. PERSONAL INJURY AND THE ROLE OF LOSS PREVENTION

Accidents and their causes

ISM Code requirements

How to use this guide

Basic safety equipment, training and developing the safety ethos

2. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

Boilersuits

Safety shoes

Safety helmets

Ear defenders

Gloves

Goggles and eye protection

Additional personal protective equipment

3. SHIPBOARD SAFETY MANAGEMENT

Management meetings

Shipboard safety committee

Shipboard safety officer

Safety representatives

Daily work planning meetings

Weekly work planning meetings

4. WORK PLANNING AND PROCEDURES

Job allocation and equipment requirements

Detailed job procedures

Permit to work systems

Example of permit to work situation

5. WORKSHOP PRACTICES – USING MACHINE AND HAND TOOLS

Training and maintenance

Hand held power tools

Machine tools

Workshop tidiness

6. GOOD HOUSEKEEPING

Encouraging good housekeeping

Unmanned machinery spaces

Reporting deficiencies

Garbage

7. ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE

Potential risks

Electrical equipment isolation procedures

Responding to electric shock

Storage batteries

Personal electrical equipment

8. HANDLING SHIPBOARD CHEMICALS

Sources of information for shipboard chemicals

Control of shipboard chemicals

Handling chemicals

Pollution incidents and fires involving chemicals

9. GALLEYS – CATERING AND PERSONAL HYGIENE

Personal hygiene

Injuries involving sharp objects

Galley cleanliness

Galley slips and falls

Refrigerated spaces

Galley equipment and clothing

10. LIFTING AND LIFTING APPLIANCES

Manual lifting

Lifting using mechanical means

Lifting equipment register and certification

Operator certificates

Safe working load

Effect of trim and heel

11. FIRE – PRECAUTIONS, DRILLS AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

Welding/hot work

Oil leaks and spills

Galley fires

Smoking

Electrical fires

Incinerators

Fire drills and exercises

Fire – emergency response

12. WELDING AND BURNING (HOT WORK)

Personal protective equipment

Welding procedures

Electric arc welding

Gas welding, burning and flame cutting

13. ACCESS, TRANSIT AND DISEMBARKING

Access to and from the ship

Transit around the ship

Preventing slips and falls

14. ENTRY INTO ENCLOSED SPACES

What is an enclosed space?

Entry procedures

Atmosphere testing

15. MOORING AND ANCHORING OPERATIONS

Anchoring

Mooring operations

Taking a tug

16. CARGO WORK – HOLDS, HATCHES AND TANKS

Maintaining safe practice

Operating hatch covers

Hold inspections

Potentially dangerous cargoes

17. OTHER AREAS NOT SPECIFICALLY COVERED

Asbestos

Passengers

Accident reporting

Dealing with an incident

18. CASE STUDIES – PERSONAL INJURY CLAIMS

Personal protective equipment

Good housekeeping

Work on electrical equipment

Welding and burning (hot work)

Entry into enclosed spaces

Cargo work – holds, hatches and tanks

19. A SAFE COURSE AHEAD

North of England P&I Association Ltd

North is a leading global marine insurer with over 160 years of history in the industry. Our purpose today remains as it was on our inception in 1860; to enable our Members to trade with confidence.

Over the years our service offering and our global office network has grown but our business has remained grounded where it all began; the North East of England.

With a global service built around you and your business, expect a warm and friendly welcome whenever or wherever you deal with us, from people who genuinely care about your business.

https://www.nepia.com/about-us/who-we-are/about-north/

Richard Bracken IEng, AMIMarE

Richard Bracken is a Marine Engineer who studied at nautical colleges in Cardiff, Glasgow and South Shields. He holds a UK Department of Transport Class One Certificate of Competency and sailed with Sir William Reardon Smith & Sons and Shell International Shipping before coming ashore in 1994. He sailed on general cargo ships, container ships, bulk carriers and tankers including product, Aframax and Suezmax tankers and VLCCs. He sailed in all engineering ranks from Engineer Cadet to Chief Engineer and was also an Instructional Training Officer at Shell. Richard joined North in 1994 as Loss Prevention Executive and is now Head of Underwriting (North EU) and Group Director (Underwriting) for Europe. He also leads North’s efforts to develop the Charterers and Traders programme and is part of the Management Team at North.

Number of Pages:
86
ISBN:
9780954201272
Binding Format:
Paperback
Book Height:
210 mm
Book Width:
147 mm
Weight:
0.2 kg