Bridge Resource Management Guidance

Number of Pages:
Published Date:
December 2020
Book Height:
210 mm
Book Width:
146 mm
0.5 kg
Current Stock:
Adding to cart… The item has been added

This title has already been added to your basket for browser access. If you require access for more than 1 user, please contact us.

‘Bridge Resource Management Guidance’ is an operational handbook that explores what good management looks like and details, for all types of vessels, techniques to develop optimised bridge teams. It equips readers with the principles and practice necessary to avoid single point failures when executing a berth to berth voyage.

This publication explores both the human and technical resources available to the bridge team, ensuring safe completion of the ship’s voyage. Tools such as the PACE model explain how crew can address operational weaknesses while avoiding confrontation on board. Case studies offer practical examples of ineffective BRM and solutions for how to improve passage planning. Illustrations effectively explain manning levels and the navigator/co-navigator concept. The publication is purely guidance and must be used at the reader’s own discretion.

Bridge Resource Management (BRM) is an operational philosophy, developed with the aim of avoiding single point failures in planning and executing a berth to berth voyage. BRM was first established in the maritime industry in the early 1990s and has traditionally been defined as the most effective management tool in using all resources (human and technical), at the disposal of the bridge team, to ensure the safe completion of the ship’s voyage.

This guidance emphasises the shift from the traditional focus on non-technical skills to passage plans with clear limits for intervention.

A passage plan with clear limits enables any team member to intervene during critical stages, thereby fulfilling the ultimate aim of BRM: to avoid single point failures.

BRM is assisted by:

  • Planning clear operational limits to facilitate timely interventions, through use of a shared mental model
  • a role based bridge organisation that makes effective use of the resources available to the bridge team and the pilot
  • effective communication, teamwork and leadership.

There have been numerous incidents in the maritime industry that could have been prevented by improved management of the bridge team and investigations have found that communication and teamwork were key components to improving safety on board. This guidance seeks to highlight common issues and discuss the high level principles of BRM, and why it matters.

BRM focuses on principles that apply to all mariners and are based on the premise that humans are fallible and that incidents can be prevented with timely interventions.

This guidance complements the work already available by filling gaps in understanding and current procedures. It is not ‘best practice’, but seeks to standardise BRM principles, define roles and responsibilities and develop the navigator/co-navigator concept.

Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 2 Passage Planning
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Developing the Passage Plan
2.3 Planning Critical Elements
2.4 Safety Margins
2.5 PACE Model
2.6 Conclusion
2.7 Case Study

Chapter 3 Principles of the Role Based Bridge Organisation
3.1 Traffic Light System
3.2 Navigator and Co-Navigator

Chapter 4 Teamwork
4.1 Overview
4.2 What is Teamwork?
4.3 Role Based Bridge Team
4.4 The Pilot as Supported by the Bridge Team
4.5 Tug(s) as Part of the Bridge Team

Chapter 5 Communication
5.1 Overview – Good and Poor Communication
5.2 Closed Loop Communication
5.3 Thinking Aloud and Announcing Intentions
5.4 Briefings and Debriefings
5.5 Human Behavioural Factors Within Communications and BRM
5.6 Case Study
Chapter 6 Checklists
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Checklist Objectives
6.3 Checklist Content
6.4 Using a Checklist
6.5 Key Lessons

Chapter 7 Intervention
7.1 Overview
7.2 Being Human – Why We Are Not Challenging and How to Overcome That
7.3 Flattening the Authority Gradient
7.4 Effective Leadership
7.5 Intervening
7.6 What Does This Look Like in Practice?
7.7 Intervention Analysis
7.8 Concept of Failing Safety

The UK Chamber of Shipping is the trade association and voice of the UK shipping industry. We work with Government, parliament, international organisations and others to champion and protect the industry on behalf of our members.

It is our mission to deliver for our members trusted specialist expertise, lobbying and influence at a UK level on maritime issues across national, European and international government and governmental bodies. By combining the strength of our members with this expertise we will advance the competitive strength of the industry ensuring that the UK remains as a leader in the global maritime business.

Number of Pages:
Published Date:
December 2020
Binding Format:
Book Height:
210 mm
Book Width:
146 mm
0.5 kg

UK Chamber of Shipping