Biofouling, Biosecurity and Hull Cleaning

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Published Date:
July 2022
Book Height:
297 mm
Book Width:
210 mm
1 kg
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This publication describes the various types of biofouling and the problems it can cause for ship operation and the marine environment. It examines the use of anti-fouling systems to prevent the build-up of biofouling as well as the options available for ship cleaning. It also sets out biofouling legislation and guidelines. The book includes data sheets for a number of hull cleaning companies worldwide.

Biofouling can have a significant impact on ship hydrodynamics and energy efficiency and interfere with efficient operation of internal seawater systems. It can also threaten the marine environment through the transfer of non-native invasive species, or through the use of toxic anti-fouling systems.

This publication identifies ship structures that are vulnerable to biofouling, factors affecting the rate of build-up and the effect of biofouling on performance and operating costs. It briefly discusses a number of environmental research initiatives into the effects of biofouling.

The book looks in detail at biofouling management, including the use of biocidal and non-biocidal paints and coatings, marine growth prevention systems, in-water cleaning and treatment in dry dock.

It sets out current biofouling legislation and guidelines, including IMO’s 2011 Biofouling Guidelines, the International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships (AFS Convention), and individual national and regional biofouling legislation. It provides templates for the Biofouling Management Plan and the Biofouling Record Book.

Finally, it provides a selection of data sheets giving an insight into the spread and capabilities of hull cleaning and inspection companies worldwide.


PART 1 Background

Chapter 1 Background

    1. What is Biofouling?
    2. The Establishment of Biofouling
    3. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC)
    4. Invasive Species

PART 2 Biofouling and the Ship

Chapter 2 Ship as a Carrier

    1. Areas of Attachment on a Ship
    2. Newbuild Design to Minimise Biofouling
    3. Operational Profile and Maintenance of the Ship/Marine Structure
      1. Type of Ship and its Charter Profile
      2. Operating in Different Environments
    4. Marine Structures/Devices

Chapter 3 Biofouling and Ship Performance

    1. Effect of Biofouling on Ship Hydrodynamics and Energy Efficiency
      1. IMO Guidance

3.1.2 ISO 19030

    1. Biofouling Cost Effects

Chapter 4 Biofouling Biosecurity and Research

    1. The Effects of Biofouling on the Marine Environment
    2. The Effects of Biofouling Control and Removal on the Marine Environment
    3. Environmental Research Initiatives
      1. The GloFouling Partnership Project
      2. The TEST Biofouling Project
      3. The COMPLETE Project
      4. The BioFREE Project
      5. The OCEANIC Project
      6. The Wave and Energy Project (WEP+)
      7. The Flinders Biofilm Research and Innovation Consortium (BRIC) Project
      8. The MultiFlex Project
      9. HCR Project (a CORDIS Project)
      10. Autonomous Biofouling Inspection Robots Research

PART 3 Biofouling Management

Chapter 5 Anti-fouling Systems (AFS)

    1. Biocidal Paints and Coatings
      1. Ablative or Soluble Matrix Coatings
      2. Contact Leaching
      3. Self-polishing Copolymer (SPC)
    2. Non-Biocidal and Hybrid Anti-fouling Systems
      1. Foul Release Coatings (FRC)
      2. Hard Inert Coatings
    3. Marine Growth Prevention Systems (MGPS)
      1. Anodic Copper Systems
      2. Electrochlorination

Biofouling, Biosecurity and Hull Cleaning

      1. Direct Chemical Dosing

5.3.4 Ultrasound

    1. Selecting an AFS
    2. Proper Application of Anti-fouling Coating
      1. Applying AFS to Specific Niche Areas

5.5.2 Ship Painting Robots

Chapter 6 Ship Cleaning

    1. In-water Cleaning
      1. Brush Systems

6.1.2 Soft Tools

6.1.3 Water Jet and Air Jet (Blast) Systems

6.1.4 AFS Resistance to Cleaning

6.1.5 Propeller Cleaning

      1. Proactive In-water Cleaning

6.1.7 The Future of In-water Hull Cleaning (IWHC)

    1. Cleaning/Maintenance in Dry Dock
      1. Hydroblasting

6.2.2 Abrasive Blasting

    1. Hull Cleaning and Ship Operations

PART 4 Legislation and Guidelines

Chapter 7 The 2011 Biofouling Guidelines

    1. Design and Construction
    2. Anti-fouling Systems (AFS)
    3. Niche Areas
    4. In-water Operations: Inspection, Cleaning and Maintenance
      1. In-water Inspection

7.4.2 In-water Cleaning and Maintenance

    1. The Biofouling Management Plan and Record Book
      1. The Biofouling Management Plan

7.5.2 The Biofouling Record Book

    1. Reviewing the 2011 Biofouling Guidelines

Chapter 8 Regulations for the Control of Anti-Fouling Systems

    1. The International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling

Systems on Ships (AFS Convention)

    1. UK Regulations

Chapter 9 National and Regional Biofouling Legislation

    1. Australia
    2. New Zealand
      1. Acceptable Measures

9.2.2 Documentation

9.2.3 Non-compliance

    1. United States of America
      1. Federal Law
    2. Individual US State Biofouling Requirements









    1. Polar Waters
    2. Belgium
    3. Chile

Appendices 83

Appendix 1 Template of a Biofouling Management Plan Courtesy of IMarEST and IPPIC

Appendix 2 Template Form for a Biofouling Record Book

Appendix 3 Hull Cleaning Companies

Data Sheet Icons

Appendix 4 Ship Wetted Surface Area (WSA) Information


Witherbys titles are developed using scripts developed by technical experts that are peer reviewed within work groups. Typically, they seek to improve understanding of the regulations, recommendations and guidelines issued by Industry.

Witherbys staff have significant expertise in the fields of navigation and hazardous cargoes as well as in the presentation of complex subjects in a graphic and easy to understand manner.

BIMCO is the world’s largest direct-membership organisation for shipowners, charterers, shipbrokers and agents. In total, around 60% of the world’s merchant fleet is a BIMCO member, measured by tonnage (weight of the unloaded ships).

The organisation has NGO status and is based in Copenhagen, Denmark, with offices in Athens, Singapore and Shanghai.

With around 1900 member companies across 120 countries, from the largest shipowners in the world to small local port agents and law firms, BIMCO represents a wide range of maritime companies and organisations.

BIMCO’s goal is to secure a level playing field for the global shipping industry. BIMCO therefore works to promote and secure global standards and regulations for the maritime sector. The organisation’s century long effort into creating standard contracts and clauses is an expression of that aim.

The International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) is the principal international trade association for the shipping industry, representing shipowners and operators in all sectors and trades. ICS membership comprises national shipowners' associations in Asia, Europe and the Americas whose member shipping companies operate over 80% of the world's merchant tonnage.

Established in 1921, ICS is concerned with all technical, legal, employment affairs and policy issues that may affect international shipping.

ICS represents shipowners with the various intergovernmental regulatory bodies that impact on shipping, including the International Maritime Organization.

ICS also develops best practices and guidance, including a wide range of publications and free resources that are used by ship operators globally.

Number of Pages:
Published Date:
July 2022
Book Height:
297 mm
Book Width:
210 mm
1 kg

Witherbys, BIMCO and International Chamber of Shipping

Product Catalogue:
Definitive Guides PDF

Publication Date:
July 2022