A Guide to Contingency Planning for Marine Terminals Handling Liquefied Gases in Bulk - Second Edition
This book specifically deals with the safe storage and transfer of liquefied gases at marine terminals. It can also be adapted to be used at a terminal that handles any hazardous substance in bulk. It provides terminal management with guidance on contingency planning, including identifying and controlling potential hazards, controlling incidents and the review periods.
The 1st Edition of this guide was originally prepared in 1989 by a joint industry working group made up of members of OCIMF, ICS and SIGTTO. The document has been revised and extended to include 'Guidelines for Preparing and Co-ordinating a Major Ship/Shore Emergency Exercise' and was published by SIGTTO in 1994. This was the third guide in a series. The first was 'Contingency Planning for the Gas Carrier at Sea and in Port Approaches', first published in 1983 and updated in 1998. The second in the series was 'Contingency Planning for the Gas Carrier Alongside and Within Port Limits' published in 1987 and updated in 1998.
A joint action between the IMO and the Environment Office of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP IE) in 1996 adapted an existing process, 'Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level (APELL)' to port areas. The APELL process was developed as a response to various industrial accidents that have had a detrimental effect on the environment.
The main APELL recommendations for port areas that are included in this publication are the Seveso II Directive (Control of Major Accident Hazard Regulations (COMAH) in the UK) which is applicable to all sites where dangerous substances are located. On and off site emergency plans must be available at sites within the EU where this directive is applicable.
This guide is not a code of practice or intended to cover all types of major industrial accident. The local and national legislation should always be considered when using the guide.
This second edition of "A Guide to Contingency Planning for Marine Terminals Handling Liquefied Gases in Bulk" was originally prepared in 1989, by a joint industry working group consisting of members of the Oil Companies International Marine Forum, the International Chamber of Shipping and the Society of International Gas Tankers and Terminal Operators. It has now been revised and expanded to include "Guidelines for Preparing and Co-ordinating a Major Ship/Shore Emergency Exercise" published by SIGTTO in 1994. It is the third guide of a series. The first, Contingency Planning for the Gas Carrier at Sea and in Port Approaches, was first published in 1983 and updated in 1998 and the second, Contingency Planning for the Gas Carrier Alongside and Within Port Limits, was published in 1987 and also updated in 1998 [Refs 1 and 2].
The document is intended to relate specifically to the safe storage and transfer of liquefied gases at marine terminals. It can however, be adapted for use at any terminal handling hazardous substances in bulk. It provides terminal management with guidance on contingency planning, including the identification and control of potential hazards, the control of incidents and review periods. Further information on accident prevention and response for hazardous substances in general may be obtained from the OECD publications "Guidance Concerning Chemical Safety in Port Areas" and "Guiding Principles for Chemical Accident Prevention Preparedness and Response" [Refs 19 and 20]
In 1996 a joint action by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and the Environment Office of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP IE) adapted an existing process, Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level (APELL) to port areas. The APELL process has been developed in response to various industrial accidents in both developed and developing countries, which have resulted in adverse impacts on the environment. Its main goal is to prevent, prepare for and respond to technological accidents and their impacts.
APELL for Port Areas [Ref. 3], provides comprehensive technical information on contingency planning for maritime emergencies, including the recently updated and expanded documentation related to oil pollution, prepared with oil industry organisations and other institutions. Consequently, many of its conventions, agreements, regulations, manuals and other guidance documents have great relevance to shipping operations in port areas, including comprehensive technical information on contingency planning for emergencies.
The main recommendations of APELL for Port Areas have been incorporated into this book.
The Seveso II Directive, referred to in the UK, as the Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations (COMAH) [Ref. 5] is a European Directive applicable to all sites where a certain quantity of dangerous substances are located. It is a mandatory requirement for on and off-site emergency plans to be available at sites within the European Union, where this Directive is applicable. It is hoped that the philosophy behind these regulations may be of assistance to operators of terminals when devising contingency plans in States where no such legislation exists.
The definition of the term "major accident" used throughout this book has been adapted from the Seveso Directive.
"An occurrence will be a major accident if it meets the following conditions:
(a) That it leads to a serious danger to man or the environment, and
(b) That it results from uncontrolled developments in the course of an industrial activity, and
(c) That it involves one or more dangerous substances."
In all cases where a major accident could occur proper planning will assist in minimising the consequences and optimise the use of resources.
This guide is not intended to cover all types of major industrial accidents; nor is it a Code of Practice. In using the guide the need to comply with local and national legislation should always be taken in account.
Much of the guidance given here has been drawn from existing contingency plans, national legislation and industry guidance on the subject. This is gratefully acknowledged.
The following quotation from "Fire Protection Manual for Hydrocarbon Processing Plants" [Ref. 25] sums up the objectives of this book.
"No matter how efficient the precautionary measures, disaster may strike at any moment – without warning. Experience has shown that it is economically and physically impossible
to eliminate all the hazards posed by the three "culprits" of disaster: people, equipment and weather. Any one of these factors can destroy or seriously cripple the operations of your plant by fire, explosion, wind, flood, sabotage or direct attack.
Although elimination of all these disaster hazards is impossible it is possible to prepare for disaster. Advanced planning is the key."
1. Prevention of Major Accidents
Safety management systems
Identification of potential hazards
Control of potential hazards
2. Emergency Planning
On-site emergency plan
Emergency response manuals
Emergency services and off-site emergency plans
Interaction and liaison between emergency services
Mutual aid schemes
3. Incident Control
Activation of the marine terminal emergency plan
Establishing incident control
Role of key personnel during an incident
Termination of incident
4. Incident Follow-Up
Reporting and lessons learned
Re-commissioning of plant after a major incident
5. The Organisation of a Major Emergency Exercise
Creating an exercise culture
Starting an exercise
Illustration of Typical Emergency Plan Contents List
International Regulations and Guidelines
Philosophy and general approach
APELL for port areas
The Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators (SIGTTO) is an international body established for the exchange of technical information and experience, between members of the industry, to enhance the safety and operational reliability of gas tankers and terminals. Learn more: https://www.sigtto.org/about-us/
- Number of Pages:
- Published Date:
- October 2001
- Binding Format:
- Book Height:
- 230 mm
- Book Width:
- 210 mm
- 0.3 kg