Cyber Security Workbook for On Board Ship Use - 5th Edition 2024

Number of Pages:
Published Date:
December 2023
Book Height:
297 mm
Book Width:
210 mm
1.6 kg
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This practical and easy to understand workbook supports the owner, Master and the ship's crew with cyber security risk management.

It contains comprehensive checklists to assist with the day-to-day management of onboard cyber security and facilitates collaboration between ships, onshore IT departments and equipment manufacturers.

Cyber risk management should be an inherent part of safety and security and should be considered at all levels of the company, including senior management ashore and onboard personnel.

This workbook provides practical guidance for ship (Part One - Onboard Practical Considerations) and shore (Part Two - Shore Management Considerations), including technical departments, IT departments and equipment manufacturers. It is aligned with IMO Resolution MSC.428(98) and will also be useful to the wider maritime industry.

The fifth edition has been produced and supported by BIMCO and International Chamber of Shipping (ICS).

It contains updated information on current threats and includes new topics such as the tools available to detect malware, process for hardening a computer, risks to Voyage Data Recorders (VDR), example of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) applied to NMEA messages, explanation of the Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR) tools, etc.

New detailed case studies illustrating cyber risks in a memorable fashion have been added. There are 14 checklists and 7 annexes, including risk assessment and how to create a cyber security plan.


Harvesting the full potential of data gathering with the implementation of digital technologies and improved connectivity can certainly bring commercial benefits. However, in parallel, cyber criminals are refining their methods and developing techniques that cause disruptions to business and create hazardous situations for ships, their crew, the environment and the cargo.

Building on the latest Guidelines on Cyber Security Onboard Ships (version 4), the Cyber Security Workbook for On Board Ship Use goes one step further and translates the high-level guidelines into operational tools and checklists for use on board ships. The Workbook is an indispensable complement to the Guidelines and is highly recommended reading for ship officers and shore staff with a cyber security risk management role.

David Loosley

Secretary General and CEO


Cyber attacks are on the rise, with criminals and State actors all setting their sights on shipping. This is a threat we cannot ignore. Our vessels have become more technologically advanced, with the growth of the Internet of Things and our shipboard systems increasingly connected to the internet and to systems ashore. Today?s modern ships are a target-rich environment for cyber attackers. A number of high-profile incidents on major shipping companies in recent years have demonstrated the serious potential for major disruption to operations and safety for maritime trade. It is essential that shipping remains resilient against these threats if it is to continue to carry the vast bulk of global trade safely and securely.

Awareness of the threat presented by cyber attack to shipping has increased, as have the mechanisms to reduce it. The IMO requirement to include cyber risk management in the Safety Management System from 1st January 2021 has brought cyber risk management into the statutory realm. Class and insurance requirements now also play a role in maintaining the cyber security of ships. Today, the shipping industry is better placed than ever to safeguard the vital service it provides from cyber attack. However, we should not grow complacent; regular risk assessments of your company?s cyber weak spots, training and awareness campaigns for staff and plans for recovery if a cyber attack occurs are all essential to stay resilient to the ever-changing threat landscape.

Cyber security is central to the safe and secure operation of ships and shipping companies, and this guidance provides a comprehensive resource to understand the threat practically and continually mitigate against the risks it presents to maritime transport.

Guy Platten

Secretary General

International Chamber of Shipping




Section 1 - Introduction

1.1 Cyber Security Risk Management - IMO Requirements and Guidelines

1.1.1 Supporting Regulatory Guidelines

1.1.2 Regional Regulatory Guidelines

1.2 Cyber Outlook for Shipping

1.3 Purpose of this Workbook

1.4 Checklists

1.5 Designated Roles and Responsibilities

Part One - Onboard Practical Considerations

Section 2 - Identifying Risks

2.1 Vulnerable Ship Systems

2.2 What is a Maritime Cyber Attack?

2.3 Threats

2.3.1 Types of Cyber Attack

2.3.2 Social Engineering

Section 3 - Protection, Prevention and Training

3.1 Prevention of Malware Attacks

3.2 Software Updates

3.2.1 Updating programs that are not part of the Operating System

3.3 Endpoint Protection/Security Suite

3.3.1 Endpoint Protection Updates

3.3.2 Checking if the Endpoint Protection Suite is up to date

3.4 Passwords

3.4.1 Creating Passwords

3.4.2 Password length

3.4.3 Managing Passwords

3.4.4 Handover of Passwords

3.4.5 Passkeys

3.4.6 User Names

3.5 Cyber Security and the SMS

3.5.1 Cyber Security and the Ship Security Plan (SSP)

3.6 Crew Considerations and Training

3.6.1 Key Aspects of Crew Training

3.6.2 Cyber Security Familiarisation for Crew

3.6.3 Training for Non-crew Members

3.6.4 Designing a Training Programme

3.6.5 Unintentional Cyber Breaches by the Crew

3.6.6 Planning a Crew Training Session

3.6.7 Cyber Security Drills

3.6.8 Social Media

3.6.9 Travelling in Cyber Safe Mode

3.7 Ship Inspections and Port State Control

3.7.1 Port State Control Inspections

3.7.2 Other Inspections

Section 4 - Detect, Respond and Recover: General Principles

4.1 Detecting a Cyber Incident

4.1.1 Introduction

4.1.2 Useful Tools Available to Help Detect Possible Malware

4.2 Incident Response

4.2.1 Third Party Support

4.2.2 Cyber Recovery Plan

4.2.3 Backups

Section 5 - Ship's Business Systems

5.1 Onboard Business Computers

5.1.1 USB Ports and Drives

5.1.2 USB Port Blockers

5.1.3 USB Cleaning Stations

5.1.4 Tablets

5.1.5 Personal Devices and USB Ports

5.2 Network Segregation On Board

5.2.1 Segregated Networks

5.2.2 Achieving a Segregated Network

5.2.3 Maintaining a Segregated Network

5.2.4 Benefits of Network Segregation

5.2.5 Vulnerable Systems On Board

5.3 Wireless Networks

5.3.1 Business WiFi

5.3.2 Crew WiFi

5.3.3 Guest Access

5.3.4 WiFi Network Security

5.3.5 Virtual Private Network (VPN)

5.4 Satellite Communications (Satcom) Equipment

5.4.1 Satcom Passwords

5.4.2 Satcom Visibility on the Public Internet

5.4.3 Satcom Software Updates

5.4.4 Physical Security of the Satellite Terminal

5.4.5 Software Security of the Satellite System

5.5 Mobile (Cellular) Data Connections

5.6 Connecting to Shore WiFi in Port

5.6.1 Crew Connecting to WiFi Ashore

5.7 Passenger Ships

Section 6 - OT Systems

6.1 Understanding OT Systems

6.2 Engine Department Considerations

6.3 Cargo Management

6.4 ECDIS Security

6.4.1 Updates

6.4.2 Physical Security

6.4.3 ECDIS Recovery

6.4.4 Recognising Genuine NAVTEX Messages

6.5 GNSS Security

6.5.1 GNSS Input Data

6.6 Other Bridge Systems

6.6.1 VDR

6.6.2 AIS

Part Two - Shore Management Considerations

Section 7 - Key Considerations

7.1 Cooperation Between the Office Departments and their Suppliers

7.1.1 IT Department and Technical Department

7.1.2 Securing the Supply Chain

7.1.3 Cyber Security Working Group

7.2 Cooperation Between the Office and the Ship's Crew

7.2.1 Maritime Cyber Security Management

7.2.2 Cyber Security and the Safety Management System (SMS)

7.2.3 Cyber Security and the Ship Security Plan (SSP)

7.2.4 Onboard Resources According to Ship Type

7.3 Ship's Network Architecture

7.3.1 IDMZ

7.3.2 Data Diodes (Unidirectional Gateways)

Section 8 - OT Systems Management

8.1 OT Asset Management and Risk Assessment

8.1.1 Asset Management

8.1.2 Asset Risk Assessment

8.2 Securing OT Systems

8.3 Securing the Ethernet IP Network Used by OT Systems

8.3.1 Converter Security

8.4 Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS)

Section 9 ? IT Systems Management

9.1 Remote Access

9.2 Vulnerability Scanning

9.3 Penetration (Pen) Testing

9.4 Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR)

9.5 Disaster Recovery from Backup

9.6 Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) for IT/OT Systems


Checklist 1 - Cyber Security Familiarisation for New Crew Members

Checklist 2 - Cyber Security Crew Training

Checklist 3 - Detecting a Cyber Incident

Checklist 4 - Responding to a Cyber Incident On Board

Checklist 5 - Onboard Business Computer

Checklist 6 - Network Segregation

Checklist 7 - Networks (Wireless and Wired)

Checklist 8 - Satellite Communications

Checklist 9 - OT Systems for Crew

Checklist 10 - ECDIS Cyber Security

Checklist 11 - Cyber Security Checks on the Navigation Bridge

Checklist 12 - Asset Management and Risk Assessment

Checklist 13 - OT Systems for IT Department

Checklist 14 - Remote Access


Annex 1 - Cyber Security Assessment

Annex 2 - Creating a Cyber Security Plan

Annex 3 - Creating User Accounts

Annex 4 - Checking for Segregated Networks

Annex 5 - NMEA 0183

Annex 6 - Regional Regulatory Guidance

Annex 7 - Further Resources


BIMCO is the world's largest direct-membership organisation for shipowners, charterers, shipbrokers and agents. In total, around 60% of the world?s merchant fleet is a BIMCO member, measured by tonnage (weight of the unloaded ships).

The organisation has NGO status and is based in Copenhagen, Denmark, with offices in Athens, Singapore and Shanghai.

With around 1900 member companies across 120 countries, from the largest shipowners in the world to small local port agents and law firms, BIMCO represents a wide range of maritime companies and organisations.

BIMCO's goal is to secure a level playing field for the global shipping industry. BIMCO therefore works to promote and secure global standards and regulations for the maritime sector. The organisation?s century long effort into creating standard contracts and clauses is an expression of that aim.


The International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) is the principal international trade association for the shipping industry, representing shipowners and operators in all sectors and trades.

ICS membership comprises national shipowners' associations in Asia, Europe and the Americas whose member shipping companies operate over 80% of the world's merchant tonnage.

Established in 1921, ICS is concerned with all technical, legal, employment affairs and policy issues that may affect international shipping.

ICS represents shipowners with the various intergovernmental regulatory bodies that impact on shipping, including the International Maritime Organization.

ICS also develops best practices and guidance, including a wide range of publications and free resources that are used by ship operators globally.


Witherbys titles are developed using scripts developed by technical experts that are peer reviewed within work groups. Typically, they seek to improve understanding of the regulations, recommendations and guidelines issued by Industry.

Witherbys staff have significant expertise in the fields of navigation and hazardous cargoes as well as in the presentation of complex subjects in a graphic and easy to understand manner.

Number of Pages:
Published Date:
December 2023
Book Height:
297 mm
Book Width:
210 mm
1.6 kg
Publication Date:
December 2023

BIMCO, International Chamber of Shipping and Witherby Publishing Group.