Ballast Water Management, 14th Edition - Understanding the regulations, treatment technologies and practical information

Number of Pages:
Published Date:
September 2023
Book Height:
297 mm
Book Width:
210 mm
2.3 kg
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This 14th edition has been fully revised to reflect current requirements in the management of ballast water since ratification of the BWM Convention.

To assist ship owners with compliance, it sets out national and international ballast water legislation as well as Port State Control and ship administration requirements.

It includes practical considerations relating to system selection, installation/retrofitting, onboard operation, maintenance, monitoring and reporting.

This publication provides up-to-date guidance on BWM regulations and equipment options and will assist ship owners with transition to full compliance with the BWM Convention.

It looks in detail at the various treatment systems and technologies, significant components and the implications for onboard operation, maintenance and contingency measures.

Since 28th October 2020, only BWMS holding a revised 2016 G8/BWMS Code certificate have been permitted to be installed. The book provides an extensive set of data sheets on systems that have been type approved through the USCG and BWM Convention testing procedures. These summarise the treatment technology, type approval certification and system design limitations, so that ship owners can evaluate different systems and make an informed decision before purchasing.

The Appendices contain an updated list of IMO Guidance Documents for the BWM Convention. They also describe key invasive species and illustrate native and invasive geographic ranges. A set of technical diagrams is also provided showing an example technical layout of a BWMS.

The discharge of untreated ballast water (BW) has been a key factor in the transfer of non-indigenous aquatic species that have subsequently established and become pests in various parts of the world. The economic and environmental damage these invasive species can cause has been well documented and the importance of managing untreated BW on board ships cannot be overstated.

National and international regulations to control the spread of non-indigenous aquatic species through the management of BW by ballast water exchange (BWE) have been in effect in most regions and ports for many years. The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) entered into force on 8th September 2017. As of June 2023, there were 95 contracting States to the BWM Convention, representing approximately 92.41% of the world's merchant shipping tonnage.

The BWM Convention has been fully in effect for four years. Between 8th September 2019 and 8th September 2024, all applicable existing ships will have to comply with the D-2 standard by the ship?s next IOPP renewal date.

The United States is not party to the BWM Convention and its ballast water regulations, affecting ships that only discharge ballast in US waters, have been fully in effect since 1st January 2016. The Vessel Incidental Discharge Act (VIDA) 2018 was enacted in December 2018 with the goal of bringing ballast water legislation in the US under one regulatory umbrella. The revised requirements will not be enforceable until at least December 2026, but it is important to note that the current US ballast water regulations are in force and full effect until that time.

With so many BW systems on the market all claiming to meet the standards of the IMO Convention and USCG discharge rule, it is understandable that there has been an element of confusion for decision makers in the shipping industry. However, since 28th October 2020, only BWMS holding a revised 2016 G8/BWMS Code certificate have been permitted to be installed. The revised 2016 G8/BWMS Code testing regime is more comprehensive and thoroughly tests the BWMS for efficacy before awarding Type Approval. The new Type Approval certificates list the system design limitations (SDLs) of each approved BWMS so that ship owners have more information with which to make an informed decision before purchasing. Biological sampling as part of commissioning testing of the BWMS during the initial survey after installation and before issuance of the IBWMC is now mandatory. This will also provide reassurance of the proper operational capabilities of an installed BWMS.



Part One: Introduction and Regulations

Chapter One: Introduction

1.1 Ballast Water

1.2 The Timeline for Legislation

1.3 The Ship as a Carrier

1.4 Aquatic Species

1.5 Pathogens

1.6 Age of Ballast Water

1.7 Ballast Tank Configuration

1.8 Biofouling

Chapter Two: IMO Regulations

2.1 States Contracting to the BWM Convention

2.2 Application of the BWM Convention

2.3 The IMO Approval Process

2.4 Same Risk Area (SRA) Concept (the Management of Risk)

2.5 The Schedule for Compliance

2.6 Transparency and Effectiveness of G8 Type Approval

2.7 Port State Control Procedures for Sampling and Analysis

2.8 Ballast Water Management Manual - How to do it

Chapter Three: Requirements in the United States

3.1 Summary of Current Requirements

3.2 Development of Current US Legislation

3.3 US Coast Guard (USCG)

3.4 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

3.5 State Requirements

3.6 Future Requirements Resulting from VIDA 2018

Chapter Four: Local and Regional Regulations

4.1 Americas

4.2 Europe

4.3 United Kingdom

4.4 Asia and the Middle East

4.5 Oceania

4.6 Polar Waters

Chapter Five: Alternatives to Using a BWMS On Board

5.1 Port Reception Facilities

5.2 Contingency Measures

5.3 Port-based BW Treatment

5.4 Sediment Control

Part Two: Implementation of Regulations

Chapter Six: Port State Authorities and Port State Control

6.1 Port State Requirements

6.2 Existing Conditions

6.3 Notification

6.4 Inspection, Monitoring and Enforcement

Chapter Seven: The Financial Implications of BWM Legislation

7.1 Cost of Compliance

7.2 Cost of Ballast Water Management Systems (BWMS)

7.3 Issues and Costs for BWMS Manufacturers

7.4 Cost of Ballast Water Exchange (BWE)

Part Three: Treatment Systems and Operation

Chapter Eight: Introduction to Treatment Technologies

8.1 Ballast Water Management System (BWMS) Requirements

8.2 The Evolution of Ballast Water Management Systems

Chapter Nine: Physical Separation, Thermal, Ultraviolet and Plasma Technologies

9.1 Physical Separation

9.2 Heat Treatment Technology

9.3 Ultraviolet Radiation/Advanced Oxidation Technology

9.4 Plasma Technology

Chapter Ten: Deoxygenation, Magnetic and Ultrasonic/Cavitation Technologies

10.1 Deoxygenation/Supersaturation Technology

10.2 Magnetic/Electric Field Technology

10.3 Ultrasonic and Hydrodynamic Cavitation Technology

Chapter Eleven: Chemical, Biocide and Electrochemical Technologies

11.1 Chemical and Biocide Technology

11.2 Electrochemical Technology

Part Four: Practical Installation and Retrofitting Considerations

Chapter Twelve: Choosing a BWMS

12.1 Making the Decision

Chapter Thirteen: The Design Stage (Feasibility Study and 3D Scan)

13.1 Retrofit Planning

13.2 Retrofitting: Feasibility Study

13.3 The 3D Scan

13.4 The Design Engineering Stage

13.5 The Role of Class

13.6 Selection of Retrofit Location

Chapter Fourteen: The Installation Process 175

14.1 Simplified Overview

14.2 Detailed Overview

14.3 Before Entering the Retrofit Facility

14.4 During the Stay in the Retrofit Facility

14.5 Departing the Retrofit Facility

14.6 Technical Installation and Retrofit Facility/Dry-dock Challenges

Chapter Fifteen: Commissioning of the BWMS

15.1 Delays in the Commissioning Process

15.2 IMO Commissioning Guidance

15.3 Other Considerations

Part Five: Operations

Chapter Sixteen: Ship Administration of BWM

16.1 The Ballast Water Management Plan

16.2 Duties of the Ballast Water Management Officer

16.3 Ballast Water Record Book

16.4 Surveys

16.5 Certification

16.6 Ballast Water Reporting

16.7 Training

Chapter Seventeen: Ballast Water Sampling/Monitoring

17.1 Monitoring Capability

17.2 Arrival Ballast Conditions

17.3 Monitoring Levels

17.4 Post-treatment Monitoring

17.5 Sampling

17.6 Sediment

17.7 Test Methods

17.8 Ballast Tank Entry

Chapter Eighteen: Maintenance and Operational Issues

18.1 Maintenance Issues

18.2 Operational Issues

18.3 Emergency/Contingency Measures

Chapter Nineteen: Ballast Water Exchange (BWE)

19.1 BWE Operational Considerations

19.2 Sequential BWE Method

19.3 Flow Through BWE Method

19.4 BWE Operations Checklists

Chapter Twenty: BW Systems with No Active Substances (G8)

BW Systems with No Active Substances Type Approved under the 2016 G8 Guidelines or the BWMS Code

20.1 Aquarius: UV BWMS

20.2 ARA Plus+ BWMS



20.5 Blue Ocean Shield (BOS) BWMS


20.7 CompactClean BWMS

20.8 Cyeco BWMS

20.9 Evolution BWMS

20.10 GloEn-Patrol 2.0 BWMS



20.13 LanghBW BWMS

20.14 LeesGreen BWMS

20.15 Miura HK BWMS

20.16 NiBallast BWMS

20.17 NGT BWMS (previously MMC BWMS)

20.18 Optimarin Ballast System (OBS)

20.19 PACT marine BWMS

20.20 PureBallast 3.2 BWMS

20.21 Purestream BWMS

20.22 Seascape-BWMS

20.23 Semb-Eco LUV BWM

20.24 SKF BlueSonic BWMS

20.25 TLC-BWM

Chapter Twenty One: BW Systems using Active Substances (G9)

BW Systems using Active Substances Type Approved under the 2016 G8 Guidelines or the BWMS Code

21.1 Aquarius EC BWMS



21.4 BalClor BWMS


21.6 BlueBallast II Plus NK-O3 BWMS

21.7 CleanBallast-Ocean Barrier System (CB-OBS) BWMS

21.8 Ecochlor BWMS

21.9 EcoGuardian BWMS


21.11 Electro-Cleen System (ECS)


21.13 HiBallast BWMS

21.14 InTank BWTS

21.15 JFE BallastAce BWMS


21.17 OceanGuard BWMS

21.18 Oceansaver BWTS MKIIB

21.19 oneTank BWMS

21.20 Purimar BWMS

21.21 SeaCURE

21.22 Senza BWMS (previously known as KURITA BWMS)

Chapter Twenty two: Approval Status of Systems

22.1 The BWM Convention

22.2 USCG Ballast Water Regulations


A1 Key Invasive Species

A2 IMO Guidance Documents for the BWM Convention

A3 Example Technical Layout of ERMA FIRST BWTS using a HYDAC RF Filter

Dr Captain Nadeem Anwar

Master Mariner, FNI, SFHEA, ACII, DoS, PGCEL, MSc (Maritime Operations), BSc (Quality Management), CertEd

Having completed pre-sea training in 1983, Capt Anwar sailed on a variety of ship types, including VLCCs, OBOs, O/Os, gas and chemical tankers. His time at sea was mainly spent in deep-sea trade, which gave him a wide-ranging experience of navigating in different areas of the world. He left sea while in command in 1998.

In education since 1998, he is now Senior Lecturer in the Petrochemical section at Warsash Academy and Leader for MSc Shipping Operations (online).

Number of Pages:
Published Date:
September 2023
Book Height:
297 mm
Book Width:
210 mm
2.3 kg
Publication Date:
September 2023