Drug Trafficking and Drug Abuse On Board Ship - Guidelines for Owners and Masters on Preparation, Prevention, Protection and Response Sixth Edition - 2021
Commercial shipping, unfortunately, can unwittingly play a significant part in the transportation of illicit drugs to the places where they are consumed. The shipping industry therefore shares a collective responsibility to assist in combatting this illegal traffic. This requires shipping companies, and ships’ crews, to be constantly aware of the possibility that ships, and the cargo they carry, may be used as a cover for drug smuggling.
Drug abuse also presents a serious threat to ships’ crews, compounded by the direct connection between intravenous drug use and its associated health risks. It also exposes crews to the wider consequences of being associated with serious criminal activity, a particular danger in those parts of the world where the strict rule of law cannot be taken for granted or where the death penalty for drug trafficking still applies.
The publication covers:
• Key global trafficking routes
• Ports and places commonly targeted by drug traffickers
• High profile drug seizures
• Vulnerabilities of shipping
• Risk management and security strategy
• Ship security procedures
• Port facility security procedures
• Training and education
• Emerging drug trends, including drug characteristics and identification
• Responding to unusual activity at sea, in port, or involving passengers or crew
• The signs of drug/alcohol use by crew members
• What to do when drugs are found on board.
It also includes a new section on cyber security measures and drug trafficking in the COVID-19 era.
The ‘War on Drugs’ waged by governments for the past 40 years has hardly been an overwhelming success story, but drug trafficking and drug abuse are among the greatest social evils of our time.
Drug trafficking is a huge criminal enterprise, involving enormous sums of money and a complex international network of often violent and highly organised cartels and gangs.
Commercial shipping, unfortunately, can unwittingly play a significant part in the transportation of illicit drugs to the places where they are consumed. The shipping industry therefore shares a collective responsibility to assist in combatting this illegal traffic. This requires shipping companies, and ships’ crews, to be constantly aware of the possibility that ships, and the cargo they carry, may be used as a cover for drug smuggling. This is also a matter of enlightened self-interest. In the event that illegal drugs are found on board a ship by local customs or law enforcement agencies, companies and seafarers may potentially be exposed to huge financial fines or penalties, or even the risk of imprisonment.
Drug abuse also presents a serious threat to ships’ crews, compounded by the direct connection between intravenous drug use and its associated health risks. Apart from the obvious impact of any illicit drug use on seafarers’ health, it affects fitness for duty and compromises the safety of the ship. It also exposes crews to the wider consequences of being associated with serious criminal activity, a particular danger in those parts of the world where the strict rule of law cannot be taken for granted or where the death penalty for drug trafficking still applies.
These Guidelines are intended to help shipping companies, Masters and ships’ officers to combat drug trafficking and to recognise some of the signs of possible drug use among crew members.
Cooperation with customs authorities is essential in fighting drug trafficking and, to that end, the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) and the World Customs Organization (WCO) signed a Memorandum of Understanding more than 30 years ago on the principles of such cooperation. The International Conference on Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking, held under UN auspices in 1987, welcomed the adoption of such agreements and called upon organisations such as ICS to prepare “standards or codes of conduct ... with a view to curbing the illicit traffic in drugs”. Guidelines setting out some of the ways in which shipping companies and customs authorities can cooperate were then drawn up in collaboration with the WCO, and the current edition of these Guidelines supplements this basic advice with more practical information, updated to reflect recent developments.
The latest edition of these Guidelines also includes a section on the implications of cyber risks for drug trafficking.
In the preparation of the current and previous editions of these Guidelines, ICS has sought advice from several sources. Particular acknowledgement is made to the UN Office on Drugs and Crime in Vienna, the WCO, and customs authorities in the United Kingdom, the United States and Hong Kong, China.
Attention is drawn to countries where cannabis possession for personal use has been legalised. This may conflict with the laws of the flag State of the ship that prohibits such onboard possession and, if this is the case, the flag State law will take precedence.
Section A – Preparation – Understanding the Security Challenges
Chapter 1 – All Ports and Seas are Vulnerable
1.1 Strategic Response
1.2 Defining the Problem
1.3 Evolving Threats
1.4 Drug Policy and Procedures
1.5 Preparation, Protection, Prevention and Response
1.6 An Introduction to Measures to Safeguard a Ship Against Drug Trafficking
1.7 Assessing the Risk of Drug Trafficking by Ship for Specific Routes
1.8 Global Drug Trafficking Routes
1.9 Frequent Ports and Places Targeted by Drug Traffickers
Chapter 2 – The Threat to Ships 35
2.1 Vulnerabilities of Shipping
2.2 Drug Seizures On Board Ship
Chapter 3 – Risk Management
3.1 Security Strategy
3.2 The ISPS Code
3.3 The ILO/IMO Code of Practice on Security in Ports
3.5 The SAFE Framework of Standards
3.6 The Container Control Programme (CCP)
3.7 Guidelines for Prevention and Suppression of Illicit Drugs for International Shipping
Section B – Protection
Chapter 4 – Organisational Behaviour Leading to Enhanced Security Culture
4.1 Personnel Security Strategy
4.2 Personnel Control
4.3 Social Engineering
4.4 Procedural Protection Measures
4.5 Information Protection Measures
Chapter 5 – Physical Security Measures
5.1 Port Facility Protection Measures (Physical)
5.2 Port Facility Security Procedures
5.3 Ship Security Procedures
5.4 Port and Ship Cooperation
Chapter 6 – Cyber Security Measures
6.1 Cyber Risk and Drug Trafficking
6.2 How is Cyber-Enabled Trafficking Accomplished?
6.3 Cyber Protection Measures
6.4 Social Engineering by Electronic Means
6.5 Cyber Risk Management – Maritime Industry Requirements and Guidelines
Section C – Prevention
Chapter 7 – National and International Cooperation
7.1 Regional Cooperation Examples
7.2 Anti-Corruption and Anti-Bribery
Chapter 8 – Training and Education
8.1 Training Needs
8.2 Responsibilities for Delivery of Training Programmes
8.3 Training Slides
8.4 Familiarisation Checklist
Chapter 9 – Penalties and Prosecution
9.1 Legal Consequences
9.2 National Penalties
9.3 Prosecuting Trafficking on the High Seas
Section D – Response
Chapter 10 – Tactical
10.1 Unusual Activity at Sea
10.2 Unusual Activity While in Port
10.3 Suspicious Circumstances On Board
Chapter 11 – Operational
11.1 Concealment of Drugs
11.2 Containers (Rip-On/Rip-Off)
11.3 Suggested Checks for Masters and Ships’ Officers
11.4 Typical Locations where Drugs are Hidden on Ships
11.5 Searching the Ship
11.6 Additional Considerations
Chapter 12 – Actions When Drugs are Found
12.1 Safety Considerations
12.2 Actions Where Drugs are Found on Board
Section E – Recognition of Drugs
Chapter 13 – Drugs and Addiction
13.1 Broad Classification
13.2 Drug Addiction
13.3 Drugs Permitted On Board
13.4 Alcohol Abuse/Addiction
Chapter 14 – Emerging Drug Trends
14.1 New Psychoactive Substances
14.4 Cannabis Legalisation
Chapter 15 – Drug Characteristics and Identification
15.2 Opiates and Opioids
15.5 Amphetamine-Type Stimulants (ATS) (and New Psychoactive Substances (NPS))
15.6 Sedative Drugs
Chapter 16 – Legitimate Packaged Chemical Cargoes
Chapter 17 – Alcohol
Annex 1 – Checklists – Drug Trafficking and Drug Abuse On Board
Annex 2 – Warning Poster
Annex 3 – Drug Seizure Statistics in Ships, Ports and at Sea 2018–2021
Annex 4 – Customs Authority Contacts
The International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) is the principal international trade association for the shipping industry, representing shipowners and operators in all sectors and trades. ICS membership comprises national shipowners' associations in Asia, Europe and the Americas whose member shipping companies operate over 80% of the world's merchant tonnage.
Established in 1921, ICS is concerned with all technical, legal, employment affairs and policy issues that may affect international shipping.
ICS represents shipowners with the various intergovernmental regulatory bodies that impact on shipping, including the International Maritime Organization.
ICS also develops best practices and guidance, including a wide range of publications and free resources that are used by ship operators globally.
Witherbys titles are developed using scripts developed by technical experts that are peer reviewed within work groups. Typically, they seek to improve understanding of the regulations, recommendations and guidelines issued by Industry.
Witherbys staff have significant expertise in the fields of navigation and hazardous cargoes as well as in the presentation of complex subjects in a graphic and easy to understand manner.
- Number of Pages:
- Book Height:
- 310 mm
- Book Width:
- 210 mm
- 1.4 kg
International Chamber of Shipping, Witherbys
- Publication Date:
- April 2021
- Published Date:
- April 2021